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Assessment Resources


Guidelines for Question Paper Development

A question paper is the most commonly used assessment tool. In this paper, the author describes the processes and principles of developing a valid and reliable question paper. The paper elaborates the steps for defining a test construct, developing an assessment framework, designing a blueprint, creating questions, and marking schemes. The paper also suggests quality protocols and processes for test paper review and validation.


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Ensuring Quality of Assessment using Classical Test Theory and Item response Theory

Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) are two of the most popular theories in the field of measurement and evaluation. In this paper, the author provides an overview of the theories- CTT and IRT. Basic concepts of difficulty level, discrimination index, distractor analysis and item-characteristics curve are explained in the context of the Rasch and two-parameter models. The paper also provides insights on how to interpret these concepts to make decisions on the quality of items used in a question paper.

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A Closer Look at the Purpose of Assessment in Indian Context

Assessment can serve multiple purposes. In this paper, the authors examine four key purposes of assessment: assessment for certification, selection, accountability, and support to teaching and learning. The paper synthesizes the key objectives, characteristics, advantages, and limitations of each using specific examples from the Indian context.


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Learning Outcomes for Secondary Stage

Development of quality standards is paramount for any system to define quality and use it to track the student’s learning level in the country. This document suggests learning outcomes for the secondary stage. These have been developed considering the curricular objectives of teaching different school subjects at the secondary level. They are aligned to the NCERT syllabus of Languages, Social Sciences, Science and Mathematics. In addition to the outcomes, suggestive pedagogical approaches and assessment strategies are also provided.


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